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The sultans of the Ottoman Empire Turkish: At its height, the Ottoman Empire spanned an area from Hungary in the north to Yemen in the south, and from Algeria in the west to Iraq in the east. Administered at first from the city of Bursathe empire’s capital was moved to Edirne in following its conquest by Murad Iand then to Constantinople present-day Istanbul in following its conquest by Mehmed II.
The Ottoman Empire’s early years have been the subject of varying narratives due to the difficulty of discerning fact from legend. The empire came into existence at the end of the thirteenth century, and its first ruler and the namesake of the Empire was Osman I. The partitioning of the Empire by the victorious Allies and the ensuing Turkish War of Independence led to the abolition of the sultanate in and the birth of the modern Republic of Turkey in The Ottoman Empire was an absolute monarchy during much of its existence.
By the second half of the fifteenth century, the sultan sat at the apex of a hierarchical system and acted in political, military, judicial, social, and religious capacities under a variety of titles. He was the supreme military commander and had the official title to all land. Although absolute in theory and in principle, the sultan’s powers were limited in practice.
Political decisions had to take into account the opinions and attitudes of important members of the dynasty, the bureaucratic and military establishments, as well as religious leaders. Despite being barred from inheriting the throne,  women of the Imperial Harem —especially the reigning sultan’s mother, known as the Valide Sultan —also played an important behind-the-scenes political role, effectively ruling the empire during the period known as the Sultanate of Women.
Constitutionalism was only established during the reign Abdul Hamid IIwho thus became the empire’s last absolute ruler and its reluctant first constitutional monarch. The table below lists Ottoman sultans, as well as the last Ottoman caliph, in chronological order.
Khillafat tughras were the calligraphic seals or signatures used by Ottoman sultans. They were displayed on all official documents as well as on coins, and were far more important in identifying a sultan than his portrait. The “Notes” column contains information on each sultan’s parentage and khilsfat.
For earlier rulers, there is usually a time gap between the moment a sultan’s reign ended and the moment his successor was enthroned. This is because the Ottomans in that era practiced what historian Quataert has described as ” survival of the fittestnot eldest, son”: Because of the infighting and numerous fratricides that occurred, a sultan’s death date therefore did not always coincide with the accession date of his successor.
This in turn explains why from the 17th century onwards a deceased sultan was rarely succeeded by his own son, but usually by an uncle or brother. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Imperial Coat of arms. Best known office holder Suleiman I 30 September — 6 September State organisation of the Ottoman Empire. The full style of the Ottoman ruler was complex, as it was composed of several titles and evolved over the centuries. The title of sultan was used continuously by all rulers almost from the beginning. However, because it was widespread in the Muslim world, the Ottomans quickly adopted variations of it to dissociate themselves from other Muslim rulers of lesser status.
The combining of the Islamic and Central Asian heritages of the Ottomans led to the adoption of the title that became the standard designation of the Ottoman ruler: The Ottoman Caliphate was one of the most important positions held by usmaniaa of the Ottoman Dynasty.
List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire – Wikipedia
According to Ottoman historiographyMurad I adopted the title of caliph during his reign to ,hilafat, and Selim I usmanis strengthened the caliphal authority during his conquest of Egypt in However, the general consensus among modern scholars is that Ottoman rulers had used the title of caliph before the conquest of Egypt, as early as during the reign of Murad I —who brought most of the Balkans under Ottoman rule and established the title of sultan in The treaty was highly symbolic, since it marked the first international recognition of the Ottomans’ claim to the khilafst.
Although the treaty made official the Ottoman Empire’s loss of the Crimean Khanateit acknowledged the Ottoman caliph’s continuing religious authority over Muslims in Russia. Tughras were used by 35 out of 36 Ottoman sultans, starting with Orhan in the 14th century, whose tughra has been found on two different documents.
Fetret Devriwas a period of chaos in the Ottoman Empire which lasted from to It started following the defeat and capture of Bayezid I by the Turco- Mongol warlord Tamerlane at the Battle of Ankarawhich was fought on 20 July Bayezid’s sons fought each other for over a decade, until Mehmed I emerged as the undisputed victor in The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire was a gradual process which started with the abolition of the sultanate and ended with that of the caliphate 16 months later.
The Construction of the Ottoman State. The Nature of the Early Ottoman State. Lindner, Rudi Paul Nomads and Ottomans in Medieval Anatolia. Without a proven genealogy, or even without evidence of sufficient care to produce a single genealogy to be presented to all the court chroniclers, there obviously could be no tribe; thus, the tribe was not a factor in early Ottoman history.
Archived from the original on Retrieved 19 February Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. The Cambridge History of Islam: Retrieved 14 March Geschishte des Osmanichen Trans: Fatih Sultan Mehmed Han”.
The concubine, the princess, and the teacher: University of Texas Press. The New Encyclopedia of Islam. The Turks in World History.
Oxford University Press US. In Metz, Helen Chapin. Country Studies 5th ed. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. University of California Press. In Weismann, Itzchak; Zachs, Fruma. Ottoman Reform and Muslim Regeneration: Studies in Honour of Butrus Abu-Manneb. Foreword by Manoutchehr M.
Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire, — 2nd ed. The Sultan of Vezirs: Southeastern Europe under Ottoman Rule, — 3rd ed.
University of Washington Press. Islam and Political Development in Turkey. Mavi Emperyalizm [ Blue Imperialism ] in Turkish. In Karpat, Kemal H.
List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire
Dynasty Family tree detailed Family tree simplified Line of succession. Usmaia topics Alphabetical index of topics. Sultanate of Rum Mongol invasions of Anatolia Ilkhanate. War of Independence One-party period Multi-party period.
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Rise of the Ottoman Empire — Reigned until his death. Son of Osman I and Malhun Hatun. Killed on the battlefield at the Battle of Kosovo on June 15, Ottoman Interregnum [d] 20 July — 5 July Acquired the control of the eastern part of the Anatolian territory as the Co-Sultan just after the defeat of the Battle of Ankara on 20 July The Bowstring Maker for his support.
Son of Bayezid I and Devlet Hatun. Second reign; Forced to return to the throne following a Janissary insurgence;  Reigned until his death. Growth of the Ottoman Empire — Second reign; Conquered Constantinople in ; Reigned until his death. Died near Didymoteicho on 26 May