March Notes on the Antisymmetry of Syntax. Bernhard Rohrbacher. University of Pennsylvania. Follow this and additional works at. syntax came into its own as a tool for investigating and explaining typological variation 2″Antisymmetry and Japanese” () English Linguistics, syntax has no tools that can be used to analyze linear asymmetries (see . closer to answering the questions raised by Kayne’s antisymmetry.
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The upper row shows the constituency-based structures, and the lower row the dependency-based structures.
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These results imply that Universal Grammar is equipped with the binary head-directionality, and is not antisymmetric. Worth noting in this area is that the more layered the syntactic structures are, the more discontinuities can occur, which means the component of the theory that addresses discontinuities must play a greater role. Introduction to the theory of grammar. The hte branching structure on the right is a more traditional approach to branching. The Syntactic Domain of Anaphora.
Concerning phrases such as the house and the house therethis article assumes the traditional Stntax analysis, meaning that the noun is deemed to be head over the determiner. This relationship is a primitive in Kayne’s theory of linearization, the process that converts a tree structure into a flat structureless string of terminal nodes. If phrases are always to be underlyingly head-initial, then a case like this must entail movement, since the particle comes after the verb phrase.
Views Read Edit View history. Antishmmetry the monograph, syntactic representation is understood in terms of the research framework of transformational grammar let’s use this name for the well thw framework with its specific levels of structure and operations. Here, at each phrasal level in turn, the head of the phrase moves from left to right position relative to its complement. Once the underlying order is fixed, there come into use different combinations of movements. Therefore, Pro is assumed to be a weak pronoun and hence a DP which undergoes deletion at PF after being merged with VP and constructing a point of symmetry.
Kayne formulates in the form of synttax universals the linear orderings of the main syntactic constituents. Kayne proposes that the direction of the probe-goal search must share the direction of language parsing and production. The upper row again shows the constituency-based structures, and the lower row the dependency-based structures. In the present study two significant characteristics of pro-drop languages, i.
It should be mentioned that in this article it is accepted that either moving or antisymmetru of one of the symmetry makers can break the point of symmetry. In the big picture, right-branching structures tend to outnumber the left-branching structures in English, which means that trees usually grow down to the right.
The World Atlas of Language Structures. This structure is both left- and right branching. S and S’ antissymmetry either be simplex structures like BP, or complex structures with specifiers and complements like CP.
Antisymmetry – Wikipedia
The constituency-based trees are on the left, and the dependency-based trees are on the right: Undoubtedly, it is a contribution to the armoury of competing formal approaches to natural language.
One can muster arguments for both approaches.
Clitics in the languages of Europe, Empirical approachesto language typology. Kayne concludes that “no movement rule can adjoin anything to the right of anything” [p. The following structures tje right-branching:. The definitions above may perhaps be thought to allow BP to c-command AP, but a c-command relation is not usually assumed to hold between two such categories, and for the purposes of antisymmetry, the question of whether BP c-commands AP is in fact moot.
Any antisy,metry from Spec-Head-Comp order which implies overall Subject-Verb-Object order, if objects are complements must be explained by movement.
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Left- and right-branching structures are illustrated with the trees that follow. The unwanted structures are then rescued by movement: The Mon—Khmer and Austronesian languages of southeast Asia and many African languages come close to rigidly right-branching, with numerals as well as adjectives following their nouns and with degree words like verytooextremelyand quite following the adjectives they modify.
The range of possible phrase structures, as statements of Universal Grammar, is reduced to a minimal set. The specifier, at first internal to the complement, is moved to the unoccupied position to the left of the head. Chapter 3 treats the fundamental problem of adjunction. Some examples of linguistic asymmetries which may be cited in support of the theory although they do not concern head direction are listed below. It is in this chapter that R. In fact, it is argued that all languages have the underlying order Specifier-Head-Complement.
The high degree of restrictiveness, an important part of which is antisymmetry, makes R. Languages typically construct phrases with a head word or nucleus and aantisymmetry or more dependents modifiers. For the property of lanye relations, see Antisymmetric relation. We can define the chapters from 1 syntad 4 as those representing, so to say, the static part of the syntactic model. In such a way, the author ensures antistmmetry, the main property of phrase structures necessary for the correspondence between the hierarchical antisymmstry of nonterminals and the linear order of terminals.
The constituency-based structures are right-branching insofar as the non-head daughter is to the right of the head. This particle is overtly realised in English by movement of an auxiliary to C in the case of the example above, by movement of did to C.
In the same chapter, the author turns to the structure below the word level and tries to explore how rhe theory works at the morphemic level. From the mids onwards, the standard analysis of wh-movement involved the wh-phrase moving leftward to a position on the left edge of the clause called [Spec,CP] i. Antisymketry introduces some refinement to his theory of phrase structure in order to include specifiers and adjoined phrases into the phrase markers. Views Read Edit View history.
A category excludes all categories not dominated by both its segments.