Find the complete list of news-values below. Click on the image below to see it clearly. Galtung and Ruge, in their seminal study in the area put. One of the best known lists of news values was drawn up by media researchers Johan Galtung and Marie. Holmboe Ruge. They analysed international news. Galtung and Ruge news theories. 1. GALTUNG AND RUGE NEWS VALUES; 2. For any story that appears in the news has to have.
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InGaltung and Ruge published an influential list of news values. Fifty years later, my article takes this list to demonstrate how mass media principles still apply when building audiences for an independent film in the Internet age. The article builds on a constructivist approach that news values can be actively formulated and stressed. It uses the case study of independent film project 15Malaysiaillustrating how this project, though unknowingly, actively created news value to convince opinion leaders of the worth of their project and, ultimately, build an audience of over two million viewers.
Fifty years ago, Johan Galtung and Mari Holmboe Ruge published a seminal article on how different aspects of an event increase the likelihood of it being selected as news story by journalists. Fifty years later, the media world has changed from one of scarcity to one of abundance.
Making audio-visual content has not only become almost as common as reading and writing. The Internet also constitutes a freely accessible worldwide marketing and distribution medium. Film production, marketing and distribution, so it seems, became independent from the control of a few filmmaking centers, media conglomerates and gatekeeping intermediaries. Maybe predictably, these developments also led to an explosion of available small-scale cultural content Hesmondhalgh, One hundred hours of video are added to YouTube every minute.
The Sundance Film Festival registers record submission numbers every year. The number of film festivals itself constantly increases.
Galtunt over-abundance of cultural products leads to issues in terms of findability, threatening galthng promises of independence. Even if people make their own films and upload them to the Internet, most of them drown in the sea of filmic content available online, never reaching a meaningful audience. To valuee these issues, intermediaries continue to play an important role.
In this networked public sphere, opinion leaders act as de facto gatekeepers, who connect films with potential audiences. Opinion leaders make sense of and help their audiences maneuver around the over-abundance of cultural products online Meissner, ; Singer, On the Internet, we do not only find classical cultural industries intermediaries, like mass media journalists cultural galutng according to Bourdieu, or film distributors cultural intermediaries according to Iordanova,but also a growing number of bloggers, social media users and special interest opinion leaders, such as netlabels Galuszka, or fansites Rutherford,that are organised around specific snd.
Even though there are nnews and widely discussed differences between these groups see Chu,for an overview of the differences between bloggers and journalists from a communication studies perspectiveall of them nevertheless can connect independent filmmakers with potential audiences. In the audience building process, they are therefore bridges that ought to be crossed. News values can be actively formulated and stressed, and therefore exploited as audience building tool.
I present an account of how the independent film project 15Malaysiaalbeit unknowingly, actively constructed rige value that allowed it to focus its audience building campaign and ultimately attract over two million viewers. Fifty years after Galtung and Ruge formulated a theory of journalistic choice for the mass media age of scarcity, all news value factors the authors identified can ajd found in the communication surrounding 15Malaysia. The case of 15Malaysiathus, suggests that creating news value helps independent films to target their audience building and become attractive to opinion leaders.
Opinion leaders, on and off the Internet, have to make decisions what news to publish, share or recommend. News values seem to remain a galtuny theoretical concept to explain these decisions [ 3 ]. Independent filmmakers, to me and therefore in this article, are filmmakers that are free to make their own creative decisions and follow a do-it-yourself audience building and distribution approach.
As such, they have full control over their film — from ideation, via production, all the way to distribution. They do not only autonomously decide what gwltung of film they make but also what kind of audience they want to reach.
This being said, a filmmaker will of course rarely work in snd isolation and solitude. Collaborators, crew members, financial constraints, available time, knowledge, technology, socio-historical contexts and social contacts in general will always influence a filmmaker.
On the contrary, then, dependent filmmakers would be those working with executive producers, film studios, broadcasting programmers, private investors or some funding agencies, whose roles as financiers put them into a position to overrule the nsws in creative decisions.
Traditionally, most filmmakers would rely on distributors or sales agents when it comes to building audiences for their films. Such audience building strategies are in stark contrast to what I describe as independent filmmaking. They are really dependent forms of filmmaking. The Internet has generated a lot of claims that such dependencies might be overcome [ 4 ]. Practitioners and scholars seem to agree. Audience building on the Internet is not free from the influence of intermediaries.
But these intermediaries are no longer gatekeepers. These opinion leaders, I hope to show in the remainder of this paper, can be influenced in their decisions through the creation of relevant news value factors — just like traditional mass media gatekeepers. On its way to the audience, a potential news story has to pass opinion leaders. Traditional newspapers have space limitations, radio and television time limitations. For those media, journalists have to select what events will become news and which ones remain unreported.
Walter Lippmann was the first to argue that journalists select the news they publish not randomly or because they are influenced by personal interests but according to the anticipated value a given news story would have for their audiences. There seems to be a news value system at work that journalists acquire in the course of their training or through socialisation Harrison, and which guides them in their news selection.
In times of the Internet, one might argue, time and space limitations have become obsolete — and therefore the work of traditional gatekeepers and news value as explanatory concept for their choices. On the level of the individual online opinion leader, a certain filtration process still has to take place.
The first in-depth study of news values was undertaken by Galtung and Rugewho established a list of 12 factors that together determine the news value of a story. I will use their list of news value factors in this article. I will, however, make two adjustments to their work. The news value factors I will discuss in this article are:. Galtung and Ruge describe their list of news value factors as cumulative and compensatory. The more news value factors a story has, the more newsworthy it is.
The authors raised three points of importance. Taking the same line, Palmer found, in an analysis of U. While the popular press focused more on human interests, quality papers concentrated on political news. Different stories or elites are relevant to different audiences. Journalists decide what they think is relevant to their respective audiences and whether it can be understood Golding and Elliott, News are commercial products.
They have to reflect popular tastes in order to appeal to mass audiences Allern, More cynically put, market mechanisms turn journalism into a service profession. Journalists are service intermediaries for their audiences [ 12 ]. Journalists tend to personalise their stories, make them less ambiguous and rather report about the conflict in a story while downplaying its dull aspects.
Curran and Seaton [ 13 ] struck a similar chord when arguing that news values help journalists to turn complicated reality into ‘neat stories’ that reinforce stereotypes and established points of view. But again, Galtung and Ruge never claimed that a story has to fulfill all of their listed news value factors in order to become news; their list is cumulative and compensatory.
In more recent cultural industries research, there are indications that news values remain an important concept to explain cultural flows. In her study of fiction writing, Rutherford identified elites celebrities; blockbusters and relevance timeliness through cultural trends as important marketing tools.
Galuszka studied online music labels and found that they act as opinion leaders that provide a certain focus relevance to listeners in terms of music tastes and genre.
GCSE Media Studies News Values
Some of the most successful video mashups see Edwards and Tryon, make heavy use of elites as well as relating their work to current affairs consonance.
The linguists Monika Bednarek and Helen Caple formulated an interesting constructivist argument about news values, which provides an excellent theoretical framework for this article: News values are not innately news-intrinsic, and therefore independent of reporters.
They can be created through language. In other words, news values are not necessarily passive concepts of news, but can be actively stressed or formulated by those reporting about them: This constructivist approach to news values is an important concept for the audience building independent filmmaker.
Galtung and Ruge – News Values: an update by Prof. Galtung () – Galtung-Institut
My paper is part of a research project that explored how contemporary independent filmmakers are using the Internet to build audiences independently from traditional distribution intermediaries. Six independent film projects were studied: I prepared four grand tour questions that cover the areas of information I was interested in.
Within these questions, my interview partners were free to lead the conversation anywhere they saw fit. The grand tour questions asked were:. I will use 15Malaysia as my prime case study in this article. However, whenever useful, my arguments will be supplemented with data from the galtunh projects to draw a more complete picture.
Some information on the socio-political situation in Malaysia seems necessary before focusing on the audience building of 15Malaysia. Malaysia gained its independence from galtujg United Kingdom in It is a multi-racial and multi-religious country with 50 percent of its population being Malay Muslim by law24 percent Chinese mainly Buddhist or Christian11 percent indigenous mostly Muslim and seven percent Indian mostly Hindu.
Major political parties are often associated with one of the main races. While Malaysia prides itself as being one nation of different religions and races that are all living peacefully together, racial tensions have grown beneath the surface. This has led the ruling coalition to introduce the New Economic Policy ina number of ethnic affirmative action policies that were meant to eradicate poverty among Malays. These policies largely favor the Malay majority through the provision of race-based student quotas in public Universities and for scholarships to study overseas, subsidized housing, a Malay stake-holder majority in every company enlisted in the local stock exchange and an over-boarding public service sector that is dominated by Malay employees.
Such political favoring of the majority has been pointed out as a major factor for racial animosities within the country Chin, ; Jomo, The opposition to the ruling coalition, rallying with concepts like unity, togetherness and anti-cronyism, has made up a lot of ground.
In the general election, the ruling coalition lost its two-thirds newe.
In the following general election in Galtnugthe opposition won the popular vote, but failed to claim the majority of parliamentary seats. Specifically in the urban centers, a young elite is forming that challenges ethnic affirmative action policies and their socio-political consequences. It must therefore be understood as one aspect of a wider socio-political movement in the country.
Individual short films premiered bi-daily over the course amd one month. The films were downloadedtimes from 15Malaysia. How did 15Malaysia attract the interest of opinion leaders to build its audience? The concept of news values may offer an explanation.