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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. The Fazienda de Ultramar and the contribution of the Vulgate – a reappraisal. Ultraamr of Salamanca Library manuscriptbetter known as the Fazienda de Ultra Mar, was discovered by Lazar among manuscripts returned to the University of Salamanca in The manuscript has been dated to the first third of the 13th century and comprises a translation of Biblical passages, together with elements of a Holy Land Itinerary.
PDF2 Lazar, in the introduction to his edition, firmly establishes its D credentials. According to him the Old Testament passages of the Fazienda are based on the Hebrew text. He observes that the Hebrew text is the base text, with only occasional verses translated from the Vulgate. He describes references to the Vulgate as being sporadic and states that when there is a choice between the Hebrew and the Vulgate text, the Hebrew text is always preferred. For Lazar there is no doubt that the Hebrew Biblical text is the principal source for the Fazienda.
He gives examples showing a variety of relationships between the Fazienda and the Hebrew text. However, in this paper I would like to present the case for a greater involvement of the Vulgate in the Old Testament passages of the Fazienda.
Morreale, Avenoza, as well as Enrique-Arias, inform us that the majority of fzzienda Biblical translations into Spanish are based on the Hebrew text. They include the Fazienda among them. Enrique-Arias observes that the Bible is the only text for which there are versions produced at all stages of the language. The Biblia Medieval parallel corpus allows one not only to study the development of the language but also to consult both Latin and Hebrew sources. In order to support my observations I make comparisons with items in this corpus.
To support my view I will consider 3 factors: Firstly, the use of Latin citations from the Vulgate Secondly, the form of proper nouns in the Fazienda Finally, I provide examples of the influence of the Vulgate on the Fazienda text Factor 1 Latin citations In his introduction Lazar notes the use of Hebrew words and the occasional citation in Hebrew. However, he fails to mention the appearance of the many Latin words and phrases that occur throughout the text. Altogether there are over Latin Vulgate citations in the Ultrsmar, ranging from a single word to complete sentences.
Some 50 of these occurrences correspond directly to Old Testament passages. PDF3 Frequently these appear as just part of the vernacular text as in examples 1, 2 and 3. The Fazienda citations are from my own edition.
File:Fazienda de – Wikimedia Commons
Example 1 In Genesis The direct address to the Lord using the Vocative and the second person singular in the Vulgate has been changed in fazinda Fazienda to the third person. Example 2 In Exodus 3: All the other versions refer to the monte de dios. However, on this occasion it is rendered as fastal monte de Dios a Oreb in the Fazienda.
Example 3 In Exodus Example 4 In Genesis Example 5 In Exodus Medieval paintings often show Moses as being horned.
The Alba Bible appears to marry these two concepts and refers to: This citation occurs in the Fazienda after the passage from 2 Samuel The relevance of this juxtaposition is clarified by the introduction to Psalm 51 which reads: Example 7 Example 7 presents another scenario — we have a Hebrew citation from Ecclesiastes 1: These various Latin citations confirm the active presence of the Vulgate in the Fazienda, although exactly what purpose they serve is not absolutely clear.
With the exception perhaps of Example 6 they generally add nothing to what is already in the vernacular version. Perhaps they are meant to provide validity to the vernacular version and add a sense of authority to the text? Factor 2 Proper nouns As a general rule the Fazienda prefers to use the Vulgate forms of proper nouns. He examines how proper nouns are transcribed in Genesis in E3 and compares his findings with those forms occurring in the Alba Bible and in the Vulgate.
His study focusses on the transcription of consonants in proper nouns in E3 and highlights the basic difference between Hebrew and Romance. He points out that, as Hebrew has phonemes with no parallels in Spanish, some Hebrew letters are transcribed as two or more Latin letters.
His comparison of transcriptions in E3 and Alba with those of the Vulgate shows that Alba was more strongly influenced by the Vulgate, whereas the spelling in E3 is closer to the Masoretic text. They consistently reflect the forms found in the Vulgate. PDF6 If we take as an example the references to Pharaoh in the Fazienda and compare them with the other Bibles in the Biblia Medieval Corpus and the Vulgate, a pattern begins to appear.
PDF7 However, I believe the influence of the Vulgate is further evidenced if we consider other references to Pharaoh in the Fazienda, as in Examples 9, 10 and The Hebrew text simply refers to Pharaoh by name alone. Similarly, in Genesis There is no reference in the Hebrew text to the title King and Pharaoh is referred to by name alone.
Likewise, in Genesis This contrasts with the other Bible texts which follow the Hebrew and refer to him just as Pharaoh. In addition, the use of the title King, with or without his name, to refer to Pharaoh is further evidence of the influence of the Vulgate on the Fazienda. Factor 3 Influence of the Vulgate on the Fazienda text I have identified a number of cases where the Fazienda appears to show the influence of the Vulgate text.
PDF9 Similarly, in Judges 2: This is echoed in both E8 and the General Estoria. However, it is yet another example of the Vulgate stating explicitly what is implicit in the Hebrew text. Once again the fortis of the Vulgate seems to state explicitly what is implicit in the Hebrew.
PDF13 There are also occasions when the Fazienda, as well as the General Estoria, reflect elements from the Vulgate which are absent from the Hebrew and from those versions based on the Hebrew. Example 17 is a case in point. The canpo pleno of Genesis Lazar, in his note 29, simply states: PDF16 Lazar himself identifies some material from the Vulgate that is incorporated into the Fazienda.
He points out that in Deuteronomy E8 and the General Estoria reflect the Vulgate text, referring to two elements: The other Romance Bibles reflect the Hebrew and make no mention of teeth at all. The Fazienda has oios and color but adds dientes from the Vulgate.
However, it may well be that, because of the difficulty of meaning of the Hebrew word, the compiler of the Fazienda has chosen to add this extra element from the Vulgate by way of clarification. This example serves to further illustrate my contention – namely that the Fazienda draws on both the Hebrew text and the Latin Vulgate.
They indicate that the influence of the Vulgate can be seen throughout the Fazienda. He goes on to advise caution in pigeon-holing manuscripts as to their source.
PDF17 Example 21 illustrates this complexity.
There is no denying the obvious influence of the Hebrew text as demonstrated by Lazar and generally accepted.
In Pueyo stated: However, as evidenced by Sachs, the issue of sources is complex. I believe that it is now time — over 50 years on – to re- evaluate the contribution of ulttamar Vulgate to the Fazienda de Ultramar.
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The evidence clearly suggests that the Old Testament passages are a product of two sources — the Hebrew Bible and the Latin Vulgate. Dominus Deus de myo sennor Abraam me guye e faga misericordia con myo sennor Abraam. Cantemus Domino gloriose razienda. Memento mei dum bene tibi fuerit. E que priegues a Pharaon quem saque desta carcel fol.
Jgnoras quod cornuta esset facie sua. Miserere mei, Deus, secundum magnam misericordiam tuam. On diz en ebray: Example 11 Genesis El suenno del rey todo es vno.
GE Estonces el padre. Leuanta te dend o estas en tierra. Olor de mio fijo como olor de canpo pleno bendixo el Criador. E non nos perdamos assi de fambre.
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