III. A Le,,~endfrom the 1/ Chronicon Pictum ” about the Coming of the Hungarians in Transylvania by AlexandruMadgearu The study . English: The Chronicon Pictum is a medieval illustrated chronicle from the Kingdom of Saint Emeric of Hungary in Chronicon Pictum (2 F). Get this from a library! The Hungarian illuminated Chronicle. [Chronicon pictum Vindobonense, engl.] Chronica de gestis Hungarorum.. [Dezső Dercsényi; Klára .

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The Chronicon Pictum Latin for illustrated chronicleEnglish: It represents the international artistic style of the royal courts in vhronicon court of Louis I of Hungary. Its full name is: Marci de Kalt shortly after the yearwith the last of the illuminations being finished between and The chronicle reappears in the first half of the 17th century in royal archives of Vienna by unknown means, this is why it is also referred as the Vienna Illuminated Chronicle.

The pictures of the chronicle are great source of information on medieval Hungarian cultural history, costume, and court life in the 14th century. Many miniatures seen inside this chronicle are painted with gold. The artistic value of the miniatures are quite high, if we compare similar miniatures from other parts of Western Europe from the same time.

The characters are drawn with detail and with knowledge of anatomy. Even the eyeballs are painted, which can only be checked through microscope. All miniatures showing Attila the Hun are disrupted or even rubbed out especially the last, showing Attila’s death ; this cannot be due to the time as all other miniatures and text are preserved well.

The miniatures make use of symbolismi. The text of Latin is without error and is representing a high quality. Attila as the first Hungarian king. Attila meeting Pope Leo. Hungarian Conquest of the Carpathian Basin. Lehel and his horn. The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the coronation of the first king Stephen I at Esztergom in about the yearby the 12th century, the kingdom became a European middle power within the Western world.

The monarchy ended with the deposition of the last king Charles IV inthe kingdom was nominally restored during the Regency of —46, ending with the Soviet occupation in From it also included Croatia, being in union with it.

Today, the feast day of the first king Stephen I is a holiday in Hungary. The Latin forms Regnum Hungariae or Ungarie, Regnum Marianum, or simply Hungaria, were the used in official documents in Latin from the beginning of the kingdom to the s. The second greatest Hungarian king, also from the dynasty, was Ladislaus I of Hungary. He was also canonized as a picfum, however, kingship over all of Croatia would not be achieved until the reign of his successor Coloman. He was the first child of Charles I of Hungary and his wife, Elizabeth of Poland, a treaty between his father and Casimir Cbronicon of Poland, Louiss maternal uncle, confirmed Louiss right to inherit the Kingdom vindohonense Poland if his uncle died without a son.

In exchange, Louis was obliged to assist his uncle to reoccupy the lands that Poland had pitcum in previous decades and he bore the title of Duke of Transylvania between and but did not administer the province.

Louis was of age when succeeded his father inand he inherited a centralized kingdom and a rich treasury from his father. He launched two campaigns to the Kingdom of Naples between and and his troops occupied large territories on both occasions, and Louis adopted the styles of Neapolitan sovereigns, but the Holy See never recognized his claim. Louiss arbitrary acts and atrocities committed cbronicon his mercenaries made his rule unpopular in Southern Italy and he withdrew all his troops from the Kingdom of Naples in Like his father, Louis administered Hungary with absolute power and used royal prerogatives to grant privileges vidnobonense his courtiers, however, he also confirmed the liberties of the Hungarian nobility at the Diet ofemphasizing the equal status of all noblemen.

At the same Diet, picyum introduced a system and a uniform rent payable by the peasants to the landowners. He forced the Republic of Venice to renounce the Dalmatian towns in and he also made several attempts to expand his suzerainty over the rulers of Bosnia, Moldavia, Wallachia, and parts of Bulgaria and Serbia.

Louis inherited Poland after his uncles death insince he had no sons, he chronocon his subjects to acknowledge the right of his daughters to succeed him in both Hungary and Poland.

For this vindobonemse, he issued the Privilege of Koszyce in spelling out the liberties of Polish noblemen, however, his rule remained unpopular in Poland. In Hungary, he authorized the free cities to delegate vindobohense to the high court hearing their cases.

Suffering from a disease, Louis became even more religious during the last years of his life. In Hungarian historiography, Louis was regarded for centuries as the most powerful Hungarian monarch who ruled over an empire whose shores were washed by three seas, born on 5 MarchLouis was the third son of Charles I of Hungary and his wife, Chronicln of Poland.


He was named for his fathers uncle, Louis, Bishop of Toulouse, the first-born son of his parents, Charles, died before Louis was born. Louis became his fathers heir after the death of his brother Ladislaus in and he had a liberal education by the standards of his age chrojicon learned French, German and Latin.

Miniature illuminated manuscript — These include Persian miniatures, and their Mughal, Ottoman and other Indian offshoots. This article gives an art historical account of the miniature form, for the techniques involved in production, see illuminated manuscript.

The earliest extant miniatures are a series of colored drawings or miniatures cut from the Ambrosian Iliad and chronicoon are similar in style and treatment with pivtum pictorial art of the later Roman classical picfum. Of even greater value from a point of view are the miniatures of the Vatican manuscript of Virgil, known as the Vergilius Vaticanus.

They are in a perfect condition and on a larger scale than the Ambrosian fragments. The drawing is quite classical in style, and the idea is conveyed that the miniatures are copies from an older series. The colors are opaque, indeed, in all the miniatures of early manuscripts the employment of body color was universal. The method followed in placing the different scenes on the page is highly instructive of the practice followed, as we may presume, by the artists of the early centuries.

Again, for the purpose of securing something like perspective, an arrangement of zones was adopted. It was reserved for the Byzantine school to break away more decidedly from the natural presentment of things, but on comparing the miniatures of the Byzantine school generally with their classical predecessors, one has a sense of having passed from the open air into the cloister.

Under the restraint of ecclesiastical domination Byzantine art became more and more stereotyped, the tendency grows to paint the flesh-tints in swarthy hues, to elongate and emaciate the limbs, and to vvindobonense the gait.

Category:Chronicon Pictum

Browns, blue-greys and neutral tints are in favor, in vindobondnse miniatures of Byzantine manuscripts are first seen those backgrounds of bright gold which afterwards appear in such profusion in the productions of every western school of painting.

The influence of Byzantine art on that of medieval Italy is obvious, the early mosaics in the churches of Italy, such as those at Ravenna and Venice, also afford examples pictjm the dominating Byzantine influence. In the native schools of illumination of Western Europe, decoration only was the leading motive, the highest qualities of the miniatures of the 10th and 11th century of this school lie in fine outline drawing, which had a lasting influence on the English miniature of vindobobense later centuries.

But the southern Anglo-Saxon school rather stands apart from the line of development of the western medieval miniature. Under the Carolingian monarchs there developed a school of painting derived from classical models, in this school, which owed its origin to the encouragement of Charlemagne, it is seen that the miniature appears vindibonense two forms. Accompanied as chrnoicon was with profuse decoration in border and initial, on the other hand, there is also the miniature in which there is an attempt at illustration, as, for example, the depicting of scenes from the Bible.

Here there is freedom, and we trace the classical style picfum copies Roman, as distinguished from Byzantine. Anatomy — Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

Anatomy is inherently tied to embryology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, Human anatomy is one of the basic essential sciences of medicine. The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic and microscopic anatomy, macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy, is the examination of an animals body parts using unaided eyesight.

Bilderchronik, Chronicon pictum, Chronica de gestis Hungarorum, Wiener Bilderchronik

Gross anatomy also includes the branch of superficial anatomy, microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study of the tissues of various structures, known as histology, and also in the study of cells. The history of anatomy is characterized by an understanding of the functions of the organs. Anatomy and physiology, which study the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a pair of related disciplines.

It includes the appearance and position of the parts, the materials from which they are composed, their locations.

Anatomy is quite distinct from physiology and biochemistry, which deal respectively with the functions of those parts, the discipline of anatomy can be subdivided into a number of branches including gross or macroscopic anatomy and microscopic anatomy.

Gross anatomy is the study of large enough to be seen with the naked eye, and also includes superficial anatomy or surface anatomy. Microscopic anatomy is the study of structures on a scale, including histology. Anatomy can be studied using both invasive and non-invasive methods with the goal of obtaining information about the structure and organization of organs, angiography using X-rays or magnetic resonance angiography are methods to visualize blood vessels.


The term anatomy is commonly taken to refer to human anatomy, however, substantially the same structures and tissues are found throughout the rest of the animal kingdom and the term also includes the anatomy of other animals. The term zootomy is also used to specifically refer to animals. The structure and tissues of plants are of a dissimilar nature, the kingdom Animalia or metazoa, contains multicellular organisms that are heterotrophic and motile.

Most animals have bodies differentiated into separate tissues and these animals are known as eumetazoans. They have a digestive chamber, with one or two openings, the gametes are produced in multicellular sex organs, and the zygotes include a blastula stage in their embryonic development.

Metazoans do not include the sponges, which have undifferentiated cells, unlike plant cells, animal cells have neither a cell wall nor chloroplasts. Attila — Attila, frequently referred to as Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from until his death in March Attila was a leader of the Hunnic Empire, a confederation consisting of Huns, Ostrogoths.

During his reign, he was one of the most feared enemies of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires and he crossed the Danube twice and plundered the Balkans, but was unable to take Constantinople. His unsuccessful campaign in Persia was followed in by an invasion of the Eastern Roman Empire and he also attempted to conquer Roman Gaul, crossing the Rhine in and marching as far as Aurelianum before being defeated at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains.

He subsequently invaded Italy, devastating the northern provinces, but was unable to take Rome and he planned for further campaigns against the Romans but died in After Attilas death his close adviser Ardaric of the Gepids led a Germanic revolt against Hunnic rule, there is no surviving first-hand account of Attilas appearance, but there is a possible second-hand source provided by Jordanes, who cites a description given by Priscus.

He was a man born into the world to shake the nations, the scourge of all lands and he was haughty in his walk, rolling his eyes hither and thither, so that the power of his proud spirit appeared in the movement of his body. He was indeed a lover of war, yet restrained in action, mighty in counsel, gracious to suppliants, the Gothic etymology can be tracked up to Jacob Grimm and Wilhelm Grimm in the early 19th century.

Maenchen-Helfen noted that Hunnic names were not the names of the Hun princes. Truly, our knowledge of the Hunnic language is almost zero, One can only guess a solution to this riddle of Attilas name. The historiography of Attila is faced with a challenge, in that the only complete sources are written in Greek. Attilas contemporaries left many testimonials of his life, but only fragments of these remain and he wrote a history of the late Roman Empire in eight books covering the period from to Today we have fragments of Priscus work, but it was cited extensively by 6th-century historians Procopius and Jordanes, especially in Jordanes The Origin.

Camel — A camel is an even-toed ungulate within the genus Camelus, bearing distinctive fatty deposits known as humps on its back.

Camel may also be used broadly to describe any of the seven camel-like mammals in the family Camelidae. The average life expectancy of a camel is 40 to 50 years, a full-grown adult camel stands 1. The male dromedary camel has in its throat an organ called a dulla and it resembles a long, swollen, pink tongue hanging out of the side of its mouth. Camels mate by having both male and female sitting on the ground, with the male mounting from behind, the male usually ejaculates three or four times within a single mating session.

Camelids are the ungulates to mate in a sitting position. Camels do not directly store water in their humps as was commonly believed. In hot and dry environments, within 8 to 10 days only the dromedary camels might consume water which during this period the third of their bodys weight may be reduced due to the dehydration.

Category:Chronicon Pictum – Wikimedia Commons

When this tissue is metabolized, it more than one gram vinsobonense water for every gram of fat processed. This fat metabolization, while releasing energy, causes water to evaporate from the lungs during respiration, overall, Camels have a series of physiological adaptations that allow them to withstand long periods of time without any external source of water.

Unlike other mammals, their red cells are oval rather than circular in shape. Camels are able to withstand changes in temperature and water consumption that vindobknense kill most other animals.