Many species in the genus Bauhinia have been actively introduced as ornamentals in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Synonyms: Bauhinia kappleri, Bauhinia krugii, Abrus monandra. Common Names: Pink Bauhinia, Butterfly Flower, Pink Orchid Tree, Butterfly Bauhinia. Bauhinia monandra Kurz Synonyms. Bauhinia persiehii , Southern Science Record ser. Bauhinia, Pink; Butterfly Flower; Pink Bauhinia.
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In the present study, the dried leaf g of B. The crude extract was partitioned into ethyl acetate and n-hexane layers to afford fractions with golden brown and greenish yellow colours respectively. The preliminary phytochemical screening conducted on the crude extract and ethyl acetate fraction EFBM revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, saponin, cardiac glycoside and phenols.
In contrast to this, HFBM bauhonia negligible or zero activity against all the bacteria strains. Moandra EFBM, oleic acid which is classified as monounsaturated omegafatty acid with percentage concentration, The results of this studies demonstrated that folk medicine can be as effective as modern medicine to combat pathogenic microorganisms.
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The millenarian use of the leaf of this plant in folk medicine suggests that it represents an economic and safe alternative to treat infectious diseases. Ann Jose ankara escort.
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Factsheet – Bauhinia monandra
Antioxidants from plant extract are compounds that demonstrated biological activity which can protect the body from damage caused by free radical-induced oxidative stress [ 1 ]. Oxidative stress is initiated by free radicals, which seek stability through electron pairing with biological macromolecules such as proteins, lipids and DNA in healthy human cells and cause protein and DNA damage along bauhiinia lipid peroxidation. These changes contribute to cancer, atherosclerosiscardiovascular diseases ageing and inflammatory diseases [ 23 ].
The uses of medicinal herbs are increasingly gaining acceptance even among the literates in the urban settlements, probably because of their effectiveness, affordability, availability, low toxicity, acceptability [ 4 ], and also to the increasing inefficiency of many modern drugs used for the control of many infections such as typhoid fever, gonorrhoea, diabetes, tuberculosis as well as increase in resistance by several bacteria to various antibiotics and increase cost of prescription drugs for the maintenance of personal health [ 5 – 7 ].
Bauhinia monandra Kurzfamily: Caesalpinaceae is a spreading tree with large leaves, pink and white flowers with one large anther which is elongated and vauhinia pointed, very persistent pods which split open by explosive mechanism [ 8 ]. It is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes [ 10 ].
Its antidiabetic activity has been linked to bbauhinia presence of antioxidant compounds [ 11 ]. Study on the ethylacetate fraction of methanolic leaves extract of B.
The activity of freshly crushed leaves of B. A wide range of compounds have been isolated and identified from the species of this genus, this include, lactones, flavonoids, tannins, glycolipids, glucosyl, terpenoids, steroids and quinines [ 1415 ]. However, literature is lacking on the antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate fraction, antioxidant and chemical compositions of n-hexane fraction of the leaves extract of B.
Therefore, the present study is an endeavour to find out good natural antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds for the treatment of manifestation caused by microorganism and to establish chemical constituents of ethyl acetate and n-hexane fractions of ethanolic leaf extract of B.
In the present study, ethyl acetate and n-hexane fractions of the ethanolic leaves extract of Bauhinia monandra plant were tested for their phytoconstituents, antioxidant using DPPH assay and antimicrobial potential against various pathogenic bacteria strains. The GC-MS analysis of these fractions was also carried out. Solvents were redistilled before use while reagents were used without further purification.
All other chemicals and reagent were of analytical reagent bauhinix. Three-gram negative bacteria namely; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca and Pseudomonas aeruginosa used in this study were collected from the department of Microbiology, Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria.
Nutrient agar was used as the growth media for the bacteria. The MS parameters were as follows: Identification was based on the molecular structure, molecular mass and calculated fragments.
The name, molecular weight and structure of the components of the test fraction were ascertained. The spectrum of the unknown component was compared with the spectrum of the component stored in the NIST library. Monandea and identification of plant sample: Fresh leaves of B. They were subsequently pulverized into fine powder weighing one hundred and forty four grams g. Solvent-solvent partitioning of ethanol crude extract of B. The filtrate brown was taken in a separating funnel and n-hexane mL was added.
The funnel was shaken vigorously and allowed to stand for a few minutes. The n-hexane fraction was collected. The process was repeated three times. The filtrate brown was taken in a separating funnel and ethylacetate mL was added. The ethyl acetate fraction was collected. Chemical tests were carried out on the ethanolic extract of B. The specific procedure involved for the evaluation of a particular group of chemicals is mentioned below.
One ml of water and drops of ferric chloride solution were added in 0. Blue colour was taking as indication for tannins. Flavonoids Alkaline Reagent Mmonandra Extract was treated with few drops of sodium hydroxide solution.
Formation of intense yellow colour, which becomes colourless on addition of dilute acid, indicates the presence of mlnandra.
Two ml of acetic anhydride was added to 0. The colour changed from violet to blue indicating the presence of steroids. Five 5 ml of aqueous extract was mixed in 2 ml of chloroform, and concentrated H 2 S0 4 3 ml was carefully added to form a layer.
A reddish brown colouration of the interface was formed to show the presence of terpenoids. Cardiac glycosides Keller-Killani test: Five ml of aqueous extract was treated with 2 ml of glacial acetic acid containing one drop of ferric chloride solution. This was under layered with 1 ml of concentrated tetraoxosulphate VI acid. A brown ring of the interface indicates the presence of deoxysugar characteristic of cardenolides. Turbidity or precipitation was taking as indication for presence of alkaloids.
The radical scavenging capacity was determined according to the method described by Cervato et al. The DPPH was prepared freshly and kept away from light after preparation. Blank experiment was also carried out to determine the absorbance of DPPH before interacting with the fraction. MHA was prepared according to the manufacturer’s instruction 38 g of MHA was dissolved in 1 L of sterile distilled water. The sterilized MHA was asceptically poured into sterile disposable petri dishes and allowed to set.
Preparation of bacteria innoculum: Innoculum of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella oxytoca and Escherichia coli was prepared according to Kirby-Bauer method. Little quantity of the bacteria culture was suspended in 9 ml sterile normal saline and serially diluted until the colour of the serially diluted bacteria and normal saline resembles the colour of 0. The suspension was swabbed on the surface of the prepared MHA plates. All the innoculated plates were bored at the center with 6 mm cork borer and each extract was introduced to the hole with the aid of capillary tubes.
The plates were allowed to stand uprightly for about 20 minutes before they were transferred to the thermostatically stable incubator.
Result of the phytochemical screening: The vauhinia phytochemical screening conducted on the ethanol extract of B. Result of the Antimicrobial Assay: These phytochemicals, with their molecular weight, molecular formulae, percentage area, mass peak and retention index are depicted in Table 4.
The total number of nine compounds were identified and the major compound was oleic acid with percentage composition, These compounds with their bauhinis formulae, molecular weight, retention index, percentage area and mass peak are presented in Table 5 below.
The most abundant compound was found to be 4-hydroxymethylpropyl hexanone with percentage concentration, In the present study, the results of phytochemical screening demonstrated the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloid, cardiac glycoside, saponin, tanins and phenols Table 1.
Thus the presence of these phytochemicals in leaf of B. The antioxidant activity of EFBM is strongly due to the presence of flavonoids and phenols contents as established by qualitative phytochemical screening in this study. It can be deduced that EFBM has broadest spectrum of activity on the tested bacteria. The results show that its activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was significantly higher than E scherichia coli, and klebsiela oxytoca.
In contrast to this, HFBM showed negligible or zero activity against all the tested bacteria strains. The zero activity of HFBM against tested bacteria strains in this study is in agreement with the findings of [ 20 ]. The antimicrobial activity of EFBM may be due to the presence of phytochemicals such as phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids which are naturally biosynthesised in this plant and serve as defense mechanism against any pathogenic microorganisms [ 21 ].
The relative concentration of the isolated component is indicated by the heights of the peaks. The mass spectrometer analysis the compounds eluted at different times so as to identify the nature and the structures of the compounds. In EFBM, fatty acids such as 9-octadecenoic acid oleic acidhexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid stearic acidwith percentage concentrations [ The major compound in HFBM was found to be 4-hydroxymethyl propylhexanone and its biological activity is yet to establish.
The total percentage concentration of the fatty acids in HFBM was Bauhinia monandra leaf is a rich source of phytochemicals with proven antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.